|The Republic of Zambia (pronounced /ˈzæmbiə/) is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The neighbouring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of the country. The population is concentrated mainly around the capital Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt to the northwest.
Zambia has been inhabited for thousands of years by hunter-gatherers and migrating tribes. After sporadic visits by European travellers starting in the 18th century, Zambia was gradually captured and occupied by the British as protectorate of Northern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century.
On 24 October 1964, the protectorate gained independence, after a long and difficult struggle against the British, with the new name of Zambia, derived from the Zambezi river which flows through the country. Zambia was governed by president Kenneth Kaunda of the socialist United National Independence Party from 1964 until 1991. From 1991 to 2002, Zambia was governed by president Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy. Today the country still faces steep challenges from poverty, tuberculosis and AIDS. An estimated 15% of adults are HIV positive. The per capita income is US $1150 (World Bank, 2008). Approximately 55% of the population are reportedly living on less than $2 per day.