Niger (pronounced /ˈnaɪdʒər/ or /niːˈʒɛər/; French pronunciation: [niʒɛʁ]), officially named the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. It borders Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, Algeria and Libya to the north and Chad to the east. Niger covers a land area of almost 1,270,000 km2, over 80 percent of which is covered by the Sahara desert. The country’s predominantly Islamic population of just above 15,000,000 is mostly clustered in the far south and west of the nation. The capital city is Niamey.

Niger is a developing country. It has the lowest Human Development Index (HDI) on Earth. Much of the non-desert portions of the country are threatened by periodic drought and desertification. The economy is concentrated around subsistence and some export agriculture clustered in the more fertile south, and the export of raw materials—especially uranium ore. Niger remains handicapped by its landlocked position, desert terrain, poor education and poverty of its people, lack of infrastructure, poor health care, and environmental degradation.

Nigerien society reflects a great diversity drawn from the long independent histories of its several ethnic groups and regions and their relatively short period living in a single state. Historically, what is now Niger has been on the fringes of several large states. Since independence, Nigeriens have lived under five constitutions and three periods of military rule. A majority live in rural areas, and have little access to advanced education.

République du Niger (French)
Republic of Niger (English)
Jamhuriyar Nijar (Hausa)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: “Fraternité, Travail, Progrès”  (French)
“Fraternity, Work, Progress”
Anthem: La Nigérienne
(and largest city)
13°32′N 2°05′E / 13.533°N 2.083°E / 13.533; 2.083
Official language(s) French (Official)
Hausa, Fulfulde, Gulmancema, Kanuri, Zarma, Tamasheq (as “national”)
Demonym Nigerien
Government Military Junta
President of the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy Salou Djibo
Prime Minister Mahamadou Danda
Independence from France
Declared August 3, 1960
Total 1,267,000 km2 (22nd)
489,678 sq mi
Water (%) 0.02
July 2009 estimate 15,306,252 [1] (63rd)
2001 census 10,790,352
Density 12.1/km2
31.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
Total $10.206 billion[2]
Per capita $719[2]
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
Total $5.261 billion[2]
Per capita $370[2]
Gini (1995) 50.5 (high)
HDI (2007[3]) ▼ 0.340 (low) (182nd)
Currency West African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)
Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
Drives on the right[4]
ISO 3166 code NE
Internet TLD .ne
Calling code 227

Source Wikipedia.