Mali

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali), is a landlocked country in Western Africa. Mali borders Algeria on the north, Niger on the east, Burkina Faso and the Côte d’Ivoire on the south, Guinea on the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania on the west. Its size is just over 1,240,000 km² with a population more than 14 million. Its capital is Bamako. Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara, while the country’s southern region, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Sénégal rivers. The country’s economic structure centers around agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali’s natural resources include gold, uranium, and salt.

Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (from which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. In the late 1800s, Mali fell under French control, becoming part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) gained independence in 1959 with Senegal, as the Mali Federation. A year later, following Senegal’s withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. About half the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.[5]

Republic of Mali

République du Mali (French)
Mali ka Fasojamana (Bambara)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: “Un peuple, un but, une foi”
“One people, one goal, one faith”
Anthem: Le Mali
“Mali”[1]
Capital
(and largest city)
Bamako
12°39′N 8°0′W / 12.65°N 8°W / 12.65; -8
Official language(s) French
Vernacular languages Bambara
Demonym Malian
Government Semi-presidential republic
President Amadou Toumani Touré
Prime Minister Modibo Sidibé
Independence from France
Declared September 22, 1960
Area
Total 1,240,192 km2 (24th)
478,839 sq mi
Water (%) 1.6
Population
April 2009 census 14,517,176[2] (67th)
Density 11.7/km2 (215th)
30.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
Total $16.031 billion[3]
Per capita $1,173[3]
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
Total $8.965 billion[3]
Per capita $656[3]
Gini (1994) 50.5 (high)
HDI (2007) ▲ 0.371 (low) (178th)
Currency West African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+0)
Drives on the right[4]
ISO 3166 code ML
Internet TLD .ml
Calling code 223

Source Wikipedia.