Chad (French: Tchad, Arabic: تشادTshād), officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Due to its distance from the sea and its largely desert climate, the country is sometimes referred to as the “Dead Heart of Africa”.

Chad is divided into three major geographical regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanese savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second largest in Africa. Chad’s highest peak is the Emi Koussi in the Sahara, and N’Djamena, (formerly Fort-Lamy), the capital, is the largest city. Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. Arabic and French are the official languages. Islam and Christianity are the most widely practiced religions.

Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium BC, a series of states and empires rose and fell in Chad’s Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa.

In 1960 Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the south’s hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Recently, the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad.

While many political parties are active, power lies firmly in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad remains plagued by political violence and recurrent attempted coups d’état (see Battle of N’Djamena (2006) and Battle of N’Djamena (2008)).

The country is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world; most Chadians live in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers. Since 2003 crude oil has become the country’s primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry.

Republic of Chad

République du Tchad
جمهورية تشاد
Jumhūriyyat Tshād
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Unité, Travail, Progrès”  (French)
“Unity, Work, Progress”
Anthem: La Tchadienne
(and largest city)
12°06′N 15°02′E / 12.1°N 15.033°E / 12.1; 15.033
Official language(s) French, Arabic
Demonym Chadian
Government Parliamentary republic
President Idriss Déby
Prime Minister Emmanuel Nadingar
from France August 11, 1960
Total 1,284,000 km2 (21st)
495,753 sq mi
Water (%) 1.9
2009 estimate 10,329,208[1] (74th)
1993 census 6,279,921
Density 8.0/km2 (212th)
20.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
Total $16.074 billion[2]
Per capita $1,611[2]
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
Total $6.854 billion[2]
Per capita $687[2]
HDI (2007) ▲ 0.392 (low) (175th)
Currency CFA franc (XAF)
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)
Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
ISO 3166 code TD
Internet TLD .td
Calling code 235

Source Wikipedia.