The Republic of Cameroon (French: République du Cameroun) is a country of central and western Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Cameroon’s coastline lies on the Bight of Bonny, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. The country is called “Africa in miniature” for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. The highest point is Mount Cameroon in the southwest, and the largest cities are Douala, Yaoundé, and Garoua. Cameroon is home to over 200 different linguistic groups. The country is well known for its native styles of music, particularly makossa and bikutsi, and for its successful national football team. English and French are the official languages.

Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões (“River of Shrimp”), the name from which Cameroon derives. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, and various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884.

After World War I, the territory was divided between France and Britain as League of Nations mandates. The Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence but was outlawed by France in the 1950s. It waged war on French and UPC militants forces until 1971. In 1960, the French administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo. The southern part of British Cameroons merged with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984.

Compared to other African countries, Cameroon enjoys relatively high political and social stability. This has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, railways, and large petroleum and timber industries. Nevertheless, large numbers of Cameroonians live in poverty as subsistence farmers. Power lies firmly in the hands of the president, Paul Biya, and his Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement party. The English speaking territories of Cameroon have grown increasingly alienated from the government, and politicians from those regions have called for greater decentralization and even the secession (e.g.: the Southern Cameroons National Council) of the former British-governed territories.

Republic of Cameroon

République du Cameroun
Tricolor shield before two crossed fasces. Its center is an inverted red kite shape covered with a purple outline of Cameroon below a gold star, with the scales of justice superimposed. Its left is green and its right is gold. Banners with fine print are above and below.
Flag Emblem
Motto: Paix – Travail – Patrie”  (French)
“Peace – Work – Fatherland”
Anthem: Ô Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancêtres (French)
O Cameroon, Cradle of our Forefathers 1
Political map of central Africa with Cameroon in red. An inset shows a world map with the main map's edges outlined.
Capital Yaoundé
3°52′N 11°31′E / 3.867°N 11.517°E / 3.867; 11.517
Largest city Douala
Official language(s) French, English
Demonym Cameroonian
Government Republic
President Paul Biya
Prime Minister Philémon Yang
Independence from France and the United Kingdom
Date 1 January 1960, 1 October 1961
Total 475,442 km2 (53rd)
183,568 sq mi
Water (%) 1.3
July 2009 estimate 18,879,301[1] (58th)
2003 census 15,746,179
Density 39.7/km2 (167th)
102.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
Total $42.778 billion[2]
Per capita $2,147[2]
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
Total $22.223 billion[2]
Per capita $1,115[2]
Gini (2001) 44.5 (medium)
HDI (2007) ▲ 0.532 (medium) (153rd)
Currency Central African CFA franc (XAF)
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)
Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code CM
Internet TLD .cm
Calling code 237
1 These are the titles as given in the Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon, Article X. The French version of the song is sometimes called “Chant de Ralliement“, as in National Anthems of the World, and the English version “O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers”, as in DeLancey and DeLancey 61.

Source Wikipedia.